Localization Uncertainty in Time-Amplitude Stereophonic Reproduction

Enzo De Sena, Zoran Cvetkovic, Huseyin Hacihabiboglu, Marc Moonen, Toon van Waterschoot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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This article studies the effects of inter-channel time and level differences in stereophonic reproduction on perceived localization uncertainty, which is defined as how difficult it is for a listener to tell where a sound source is located. Towards this end, a computational model of localization uncertainty is proposed first. The model calculates inter-aural time and level difference cues, and compares them to those associated to free-field point-like sources. The comparison is carried out using a particular distance functional that replicates the increased uncertainty observed experimentally with inconsistent inter-aural time and level difference cues. The model is validated by formal listening tests, achieving a Pearson correlation of 0.99. The model is then used to predict localization uncertainty for stereophonic setups and a listener in central and off-central positions. Results show that amplitude methods achieve a slightly lower localization uncertainty for a listener positioned exactly in the center of the sweet spot. As soon as the listener moves away from that position, the situation reverses, with time-amplitude methods achieving a lower localization uncertainty.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9004547
Pages (from-to)1000-1015
Number of pages16
JournalIeee Transactions On Audio Speech And Language Processing
Early online date20 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2020


  • Stereophony
  • auditory modeling
  • localization uncertainty
  • panning
  • recording and reproduction


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