Long COVID burden and risk factors in 10 UK longitudinal studies and electronic health records

Ellen J. Thompson*, Dylan M. Williams*, Alex J. Walker, Ruth E. Mitchell, Claire L. Niedzwiedz, Tiffany C. Yang, Charlotte F. Huggins, Alex S.F. Kwong, Richard J. Silverwood, Giorgio Di Gessa, Ruth Bowyer, Kate Northstone, Bo Hou, Michael J. Green, Brian Dodgeon, Katherine Doores, Emma Duncan, Frances Williams, Andrew Steptoe, David J. PorteousRosemary R. C. McEachan, Laurie Tomlinson, Ben Goldacre, Praveetha Patalay, George B. Ploubidis, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Kate Tilling, Christopher T. Rentsch, Nic J. Timpson, Nish Chaturvedi, Claire Steves*

*Corresponding author for this work

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222 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The frequency of, and risk factors for, long COVID are unclear among community-based individuals with a history of COVID-19. To elucidate the burden and possible causes of long COVID in the community, we coordinated analyses of survey data from 6907 individuals with self-reported COVID-19 from 10 UK longitudinal study (LS) samples and 1.1 million individuals with COVID-19 diagnostic codes in electronic healthcare records (EHR) collected by spring 2021. Proportions of presumed COVID-19 cases in LS reporting any symptoms for 12+ weeks ranged from 7.8% and 17% (with 1.2 to 4.8% reporting debilitating symptoms). Increasing age, female sex, white ethnicity, poor pre-pandemic general and mental health, overweight / obesity, and asthma were associated with prolonged symptoms in both LS and EHR data, but findings for other factors, such as cardio-metabolic parameters, were inconclusive.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3528
Number of pages1
JournalNature Communications
Volume13
Issue number1
Early online date28 Jun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Jun 2022

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