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Long-COVID, Metabolic and Endocrine Disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Stefan R. Bornstein, Diana Cozma, Margrit Kamel, Mawieh Hamad, Mohammad G. Mohammad, Naveed A. Khan, Maha M. Saber, Mohammad H. Semreen, Charlotte Steenblock

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-566
Number of pages5
JournalHormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
Issue number8
Published1 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: We thank Martina Talke, Nitzan Bornstein, Gregor Müller and Aline Günther for their contribution. The study was supported by GWT, Alrex Alpha, Meise Medizintechnik gmbH, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research foundation) project no. 314061271, TRR 205/2: “The Adrenal: Central Relay in Health and Disease” and project no. 288034826, IRTG 2251: “Immunological and Cellular Strategies in Metabolic Disease”. Publisher Copyright: © 2022. The Author(s).

King's Authors


In the aftermath of the corona pandemic, long-COVID or post-acute COVID-19 syndrome still represents a great challenge, and this topic will continue to represent a significant health problem in the coming years. At present, the impact of long-COVID on our health system cannot be fully assessed but according to current studies, up to 40% of people who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 suffer from clinically relevant symptoms of long-COVID syndrome several weeks to months after the acute phase. The main symptoms are chronic fatigue, dyspnea, and various cognitive symptoms. Initial studies have shown that people with overweight and diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of developing long-COVID associated symptoms. Furthermore, repeated treatment of acute COVID-19 and long-COVID with steroids can contribute to long-term metabolic and endocrine disorders. Therefore, a structured program with rehabilitation and physical activity as well as optimal dietary management is of utmost importance, especially for patients with metabolic diseases and/or long-COVID. Furthermore, the removal of autoantibodies and specific therapeutic apheresis procedures could lead to a significant improvement in the symptoms of long-COVID in individual patients.

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