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Longitudinal observation and decline of neutralizing antibody responses in the three months following SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans

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Jeffrey Seow, Carl Graham, Blair Merrick, Sam Acors, Suzanne Pickering, Kathryn J. A. Steel, Oliver Hemmings, Aoife O’Byrne, Neophytos Kouphou, Rui Pedro Galao, Gilberto Betancor, Harry D. Wilson, Adrian W. Signell, Helena Winstone, Claire Kerridge, Isabella Huettner, Jose M. Jimenez-Guardeño, Maria Jose Lista, Nigel Temperton, Luke B. Snell & 22 more Karen Bisnauthsing, Amelia Moore, Adrian Green, Lauren Martinez, Brielle Stokes, Johanna Honey, Alba Izquierdo-Barras, Gill Arbane, Amita Patel, Mark Kia Ik Tan, Lorcan O’Connell, Geraldine O’Hara, Eithne MacMahon, Sam Douthwaite, Gaia Nebbia, Rahul Batra, Rocio Martinez-Nunez, Manu Shankar-Hari, Jonathan D. Edgeworth, Stuart J. D. Neil, Michael H. Malim, Katie J. Doores

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1598-1607
Number of pages10
JournalNature Microbiology
Volume5
Issue number12
Early online date26 Oct 2020
DOIs
Accepted/In press9 Oct 2020
E-pub ahead of print26 Oct 2020
Published1 Dec 2020

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Abstract

Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in most infected individuals 10–15 d after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. However, due to the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population, it is not known how long antibody responses will be maintained or whether they will provide protection from reinfection. Using sequential serum samples collected up to 94 d post onset of symptoms (POS) from 65 individuals with real-time quantitative PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we show seroconversion (immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgA, IgG) in >95% of cases and neutralizing antibody responses when sampled beyond 8 d POS. We show that the kinetics of the neutralizing antibody response is typical of an acute viral infection, with declining neutralizing antibody titres observed after an initial peak, and that the magnitude of this peak is dependent on disease severity. Although some individuals with high peak infective dose (ID50 > 10,000) maintained neutralizing antibody titres >1,000 at >60 d POS, some with lower peak ID50 had neutralizing antibody titres approaching baseline within the follow-up period. A similar decline in neutralizing antibody titres was observed in a cohort of 31 seropositive healthcare workers. The present study has important implications when considering widespread serological testing and antibody protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, and may suggest that vaccine boosters are required to provide long-lasting protection.

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