Lung heterogeneity and deadspace volume in animals with acute respiratory distress syndrome using the inspired sinewave test

Minh Tran, Douglas C Crockett, Federico Formenti, Phi Phan, Goran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, Stephen Payne, Andrew Farmery

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5 Citations (Scopus)
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, as patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-induced lung injuries. Objective: To measure the lung heterogeneity and deadspace volume to find safer ventilator strategies. The ventilator settings could then offer homogeneous ventilation and theoretically equalize and reduce tidal strain/stress in the lung parenchyma. Approach: The inspired sinewave test (IST) is a non-invasive lung measurement tool which does not require cooperation from the patient. The IST can measure the effective lung volume, pulmonary blood flow and deadspace volume. We developed a computational simulation of the cardiopulmonary system to allow lung heterogeneity to be quantified using data solely derived from the IST. Then, the method to quantify lung heterogeneity using two IST tracer gas frequencies (180 and 60 s) was introduced and used in lung simulations and animal models. Thirteen anaesthetized pigs were studied with the IST both before and after experimental lung injury (saline-lavage ARDS model). The deadspace volume was compared between the IST and the SF 6 washout method. Main results: The IST could measure lung heterogeneity using two tracer gas frequencies. Furthermore, the value of IST ventilation heterogeneity in ARDS lungs was higher than in control lungs at a positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH 2O (area under the curve = 0.85, p < 0.001). Values for the deadspace volume measured by the IST have a strong relationship with the measured values of SF 6 (9 ml bias and limits of agreement from −79 to 57 ml in control animals). Significance: The IST technique has the potential for use in the identification of ventilation and perfusion heterogeneity during ventilator support.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115009
JournalPhysiological Measurement
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2020


  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Lung heterogeneity


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