Incidence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents with HIV (CA-HIV) in Uganda is described. 1339 CA-HIV attending care were enrolled and followed up for 12 months. MDD was assessed using the DSM-5 referenced Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5), with a prevalence for MDD at baseline of 5% (95% CI 3.3-7.3). Kaplan-Meir method was used to estimate incidence of MDD and Cox models were fitted to investigate predictors of incident MDD. Cumulative incidence of MDD over 12 months was 7.6 per 100 person-years 95% CI (6.2-9.4) and a rate of persistent MDD of 10/105 (9.5% CI 3.9-15.1). Significant independent predictors of incident MDD were: highest educational level of CA-HIV (protective), increasing depressive scores and decreasing CD4 Nadir. These finding have implications for what should constitute components of a mental health integration model in HIV youth services and for the future development of individualised mental health care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2588-2596
Number of pages9
Issue number9
Early online date20 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • HIV infected youth
  • Incidence
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Persistence
  • Predictors


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