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Manifestations of systemic diseases and conditions that affect the periodontal attachment apparatus: Case definitions and diagnostic considerations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Jasim M. Albandar, Cristiano Susin, Francis J. Hughes

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S183-S203
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Published1 Jun 2018

King's Authors


OBJECTIVES: This review proposes case definitions and diagnostic considerations of systemic disorders and conditions that affect the periodontal attachment apparatus. IMPORTANCE: Periodontal diseases and certain systemic disorders share similar genetic and/or environmental etiological factors, and affected patients may show manifestations of both diseases. Characterizing these diseases and the nature of the association between them could have important diagnostic value and therapeutic implications for patients. FINDINGS: Numerous systemic disorders and certain medications can affect the periodontal attachment apparatus and cause loss of periodontal attachment and alveolar bone. Although many of these disorders are rare or uncommon, they often cause significant loss of periodontal tissue by influencing periodontal inflammation or through mechanisms distinct from periodontitis. Most of these disorders are due to innate mechanisms and some are acquired via environmental factors or lifestyle. Several disorders affect periodontal inflammation through alterations in the host immune response to periodontal infection; others cause defects in the gingiva or periodontal connective tissue, instigate metabolic changes in the host that affect various tissues of the periodontal apparatus, or operate by other mechanisms. For some systemic disorders that are more common, their contribution to the loss of periodontal tissue is modest, while for others, contribution is not supported by clear evidence. Few systemic medications are associated with increased loss of periodontal tissue, and these are typically medications used in the treatment of malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: This review identifies systemic diseases and conditions that can affect the periodontal attachment apparatus and cause loss of periodontal supporting tissues and, where possible, presents case definitions for these. Many of these diseases are associated with a profound loss of periodontal attachment and alveolar bone, and for some of these disorders the periodontal manifestations may be among the first signs of the disease. These case definitions may be useful in the early diagnosis of these diseases and may contribute to an improvement in the management of periodontal manifestations and improve the quality of life for these patients.

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