Objectives: To compare maternal cardiovascular indices at 19–23 weeks' gestation between twin and singleton pregnancies and assess the impact of chorionicity on these parameters. Methods: This was a prospective observational study in women with twin pregnancy attending for a hospital visit at 19 + 1 to 24 + 3 weeks' gestation. This visit included recording of maternal demographic characteristics and medical history and maternal cardiovascular assessment. In a previous study of 4795 women with singleton pregnancies at 19–23 weeks' gestation, multivariable linear regression models were fitted between the various cardiovascular indices and elements of maternal characteristics and medical history. In this study, we calculated multiples of the median (MoM) and delta values according to the singleton models and assessed the distributional properties of these MoM and delta values in twin as compared with singleton pregnancies. Results: The study population of 155 women with twin pregnancy included 86 dichorionic and 69 monochorionic cases. In general, there was a similar distribution of maternal cardiovascular indices in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. In both types of twin pregnancy, compared with singleton pregnancy, there was an increase in isovolumetric relaxation time, left atrial area and myocardial performance index, and a decrease in mitral valve E/A. Left ventricular mass indexed for body surface area and relative wall thickness were also increased in twin compared with singleton pregnancy. The magnitude of the increase in left atrial area was greater in dichorionic compared with monochorionic pregnancies. Additionally, mitral valve E was decreased and left atrial volume was increased in dichorionic but not in monochorionic pregnancies, while isovolumetric contraction time was increased in monochorionic but not in dichorionic pregnancies. Left ventricular myocardial deformation was similar between twin and singleton pregnancies. Conclusions: In twin pregnancies at mid-gestation, maternal systolic and diastolic function is reduced when compared with singletons. The patterns of cardiovascular adaptation are similar between monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies and resemble those reported in uncomplicated singleton pregnancy later in gestation.
- maternal cardiac function
- twin pregnancy