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Mechanisms of checkpoint inhibition induced adverse events

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Pascal Urwyler, Irina Earnshaw, Maria Bermudez, Esperanza Perucha, Wing Wu, Sarah Ryan, Louisa Mcdonald, Sophia N Karagiannis, Leonie S Taams, Nicholas Powell, Andrew Cope, Sophie Papa

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

© 2020 British Society for Immunology.

King's Authors


Immune checkpoint inhibition has revolutionized the treatment of several solid cancers, most notably melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Drugs targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1 have made their way into routine clinical use, however this has not been without difficulties. Stimulation of the immune system to target cancer has been found to result in a reduction of self-tolerance, leading to the development of adverse effects that resemble autoimmunity. These adverse effects are erratic in their onset and severity and can theoretically affect any organ type. Several mechanisms for immune-related toxicity have been investigated over recent years, however no consensus on the cause or prediction of toxicity has been reached. This review seeks to examine reported evidence for possible mechanisms of toxicity, methods for prediction of those at risk, and a discussion of future prospects within the field.

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