King's College London

Research portal

Mechanisms of checkpoint inhibition induced adverse events

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Pascal Urwyler, Irina Earnshaw, Maria Bermudez, Esperanza Perucha, Wing Wu, Sarah Ryan, Louisa Mcdonald, Sophia N Karagiannis, Leonie S Taams, Nicholas Powell, Andrew Cope, Sophie Papa

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-154
Number of pages14
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Issue number2
Early online date28 Jan 2020
E-pub ahead of print28 Jan 2020
Published1 May 2020

Bibliographical note

© 2020 British Society for Immunology.

King's Authors


Immune checkpoint inhibition has revolutionized the treatment of several solid cancers, most notably melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Drugs targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have made their way into routine clinical use; however, this has not been without difficulties. Stimulation of the immune system to target cancer has been found to result in a reduction of self-tolerance, leading to the development of adverse effects that resemble autoimmunity. These adverse effects are erratic in their onset and severity and can theoretically affect any organ type. Several mechanisms for immune-related toxicity have been investigated over recent years; however, no consensus on the cause or prediction of toxicity has been reached. This review seeks to examine reported evidence for possible mechanisms of toxicity, methods for prediction of those at risk and a discussion of future prospects within the field.

View graph of relations

© 2020 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454