Mental Health and Neurodevelopmental Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for Children and Young People with Epilepsy: A Systematic Review

Bianca De Aveiro, Alice Winsor, Jessica Davies, Timothy Nicholson, Deb Pal, Mark Richardson, Susannah Pick*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Children and young people with epilepsy are at higher risk of mental health disorders and atypical neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to the general population. It is essential to detect such comorbidities early in children with epilepsy and provide appropriate interventions, to improve clinical outcomes. We aimed to identify and evaluate the measurement properties of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) that have been validated specifically to measure mental health and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children and/or young people with epilepsy. We searched Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO in May 2023 for relevant studies. Mental health was defined as psychological symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, psychosis) and/or behavioural difficulties (e.g., conduct disorders). Neurodevelopmental outcomes included neurodevelopmental disorder traits such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorders. We assessed methodological quality using Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidance. Twelve papers were identified that psychometrically evaluated 13 relevant PROMs (two epilepsy-specific, eleven generic). The appraisal of the PROMs was limited by the availability of only one or two published articles for each, and incomplete psychometric evaluations in some cases. The tool demonstrating the strongest evidence was The Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory-Epilepsy for Youth. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV and The Paediatric Symptom Checklist -17 demonstrated good evidence in favour of at least two measurement properties. This review identified only a small number of mental health and neurodevelopmental PROMs evaluated specifically in paediatric epilepsy. There is a need for further validation of mental health and neurodevelopmental PROMs in children with epilepsy.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEpilepsy & Behavior
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 28 Jan 2024


  • epilepsy
  • outcome assessment
  • questionnaire
  • Outcome Measure
  • mental health
  • neurodevelopmental
  • paediatric
  • childhood
  • adolescent


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