Background In 1999 the UK received 4 346 refugees from Kosovo. Aims To determine the prevalence of mental health problems in this group. Method A sample of 842 adults was purveyed. All were asked to complete self-report questionnaires translated into Kosovan Albanian). A subset of 120 participants were later interviewed in Albanian using the Clinician Administered PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) Scale and a depression interview, Results The study yielded estimates of prevalence of PTSD and depression. Self-report measures appear to overestimate the prevalence of these disorders. just under half of the group surveyed had a diagnosis of PTSD and less than one-fifth had a major depressive disorder. Conclusions These results may be taken as a sign of the resilience of many who survived this conflict but they also imply that there is still a substantial need for good health and social care in a significant proportion. Psychosocial interventions are likely to be an important part of the treatment programme. Declaration of interest This work was undertaken with funding from the National Health Service (NHS) Executive London, Research and Development Programme. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS Executive or the Department of Health.