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Microfluidic QCSK Transmitter and Receiver Design for Molecular Communication

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5837-5852
Number of pages16
Issue number9
Accepted/In press4 Jul 2022
Published1 Sep 2022

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King's Authors


The components with molecular communication (MC) functionalities can bring an opportunity for emerging applications in fields from personal healthcare to modern industry. In this paper, we propose the designs of the microfluidic transmitter and receiver with quadruple concentration shift keying (QCSK) modulation and demodulation functionalities. To do so, we first present an AND gate design, and then apply it to the QCSK transmitter and receiver design. The QCSK transmitter is capable of modulating two input signals to four different concentration levels, and the QCSK receiver can demodulate a received signal to two outputs. More importantly, we also establish a mathematical framework to theoretically characterize our proposed microfluidic circuits. Based on this, we first derive the output concentration distribution of our proposed AND gate design, and provide the insight into the selection of design parameters to ensure an exhibition of desired behavior. We further derive the output concentration distributions of the QCSK transmitter and receiver. Simulation results obtained in COMSOL Multiphysics not only show the desired behavior of all the proposed microfluidic circuits, but also demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed mathematical framework.

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