Minimally invasive photoacoustic imaging: Current status and future perspectives

Tianrui Zhao*, Adrien E. Desjardins, Sebastien Ourselin, Tom Vercauteren, Wenfeng Xia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

97 Citations (Scopus)
224 Downloads (Pure)


Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that is based on optical absorption contrast, capable of revealing distinct spectroscopic signatures of tissue at high spatial resolution and large imaging depths. However, clinical applications of conventional non-invasive PAI systems have been restricted to examinations of tissues at depths less than a few cm due to strong light attenuation. Minimally invasive photoacoustic imaging (miPAI) has greatly extended the landscape of PAI by delivering excitation light within tissue through miniature fibre-optic probes. In the past decade, various miPAI systems have been developed with demonstrated applicability in several clinical fields. In this article, we present an overview of the current status of miPAI and our thoughts on future perspectives.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100146
Early online date31 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019


  • Interventional photoacoustic imaging
  • Minimally invasive procedures
  • Multi-modal imaging
  • Photoacoustic computed tomography
  • Photoacoustic endoscopy
  • Photoacoustic imaging
  • Photoacoustic microscopy


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