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Minority stressors and psychological distress in transgender individuals

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-340
Number of pages13
JournalPsychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Issue number3
Early online date2017
Accepted/In press20 Jun 2017
E-pub ahead of print2017


  • Minority stressors and psychological_TIMMINS_Publishedonline2017_GREEN AAM

    Minority_Stress_and_Distress_in_Transgender_Individuals_Prepublication_Copy.pdf, 1.66 MB, application/pdf

    Uploaded date:25 Jul 2017

    Version:Accepted author manuscript

    ©American Psychological Association, 2017. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. Please do not copy or cite without author's permission. The final article is available, upon publication, at:

King's Authors


This study tested direct and indirect associations between minority stressors and psychological distress in a large, geographically diverse sample of transgender individuals (N = 1,207). Transgender individuals were recruited for an online, cross-sectional survey using targeted sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model, which was based on Hatzenbuehler's (2009) integrative mediation framework. Expectations of rejection, self-stigma, and prejudice events were all associated with psychological distress, and these relationships were partially accounted for by rumination. This model had good fit (Tucker-Lewis Index =.96, Comparative Fit Index =.98, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation =.05, 90% CI [.05,.06]) and explained 54.5% of the variance in psychological distress and 29.3% in rumination. This is the first study to examine a model of minority stress and psychological distress that includes rumination and all four minority stressors from Meyer's (2003) framework in a large sample of transgender individuals. Results indicate a strong relationship between minority stressors and psychological distress among transgender people, and that these relationships are partially explained by rumination. Results need to be considered in relation to the cross-sectional nature of the design and the possible role for additional variables. Future research should investigate these findings using designs that provide tests of causality.

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