Mobile electroencephalography (mobile EEG) represents a next-generation neuroscientific technology – to study real-time brain activity – that is relatively inexpensive, non-invasive and portable. Mobile EEG leverages state-of-the-art hardware alongside established advantages of traditional EEG and recent advances in signal processing. In this review, we propose that mobile EEG could open unprecedented possibilities for studying neurodevelopmental disorders. We first present a brief overview of recent developments in mobile EEG technologies, emphasising the proliferation of studies in several neuroscientific domains. As these developments have yet to be exploited by neurodevelopmentalists, we then identify three research opportunities: 1) increase in the ease and flexibility of brain data acquisition in neurodevelopmental populations; 2) integration into powerful developmentally-informative research designs; 3) development of innovative non-stationary EEG-based paradigms. Critically, we address key challenges that should be considered to fully realise the potential of mobile EEG for neurodevelopmental research and for understanding developmental psychopathology more broadly, and suggest future research directions.
- EEG, ERP, Biomarker, Neurodevelopmental disorders, Developmental psychopathology