MONAI Label: A framework for AI-assisted interactive labeling of 3D medical images

Andres Diaz-Pinto*, Sachidanand Alle, Vishwesh Nath, Yucheng Tang, Alvin Ihsani, Muhammad Asad, Fernando Pérez-García, Pritesh Mehta, Wenqi Li, Mona Flores, Holger R. Roth, Tom Vercauteren, Daguang Xu, Prerna Dogra, Sebastien Ourselin, Andrew Feng, M. Jorge Cardoso

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The lack of annotated datasets is a major bottleneck for training new task-specific supervised machine learning models, considering that manual annotation is extremely expensive and time-consuming. To address this problem, we present MONAI Label, a free and open-source framework that facilitates the development of applications based on artificial intelligence (AI) models that aim at reducing the time required to annotate radiology datasets. Through MONAI Label, researchers can develop AI annotation applications focusing on their domain of expertise. It allows researchers to readily deploy their apps as services, which can be made available to clinicians via their preferred user interface. Currently, MONAI Label readily supports locally installed (3D Slicer) and web-based (OHIF) frontends and offers two active learning strategies to facilitate and speed up the training of segmentation algorithms. MONAI Label allows researchers to make incremental improvements to their AI-based annotation application by making them available to other researchers and clinicians alike. Additionally, MONAI Label provides sample AI-based interactive and non-interactive labeling applications, that can be used directly off the shelf, as plug-and-play to any given dataset. Significant reduced annotation times using the interactive model can be observed on two public datasets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103207
JournalMedical Image Analysis
Early online date21 May 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 May 2024


  • 3D medical imaging
  • Active learning
  • Deep learning
  • Interactive 3D image segmentation


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