Motion-corrected and high-resolution anatomically assisted (MOCHA) reconstruction of arterial spin labeling MRI: High-resolution ASL image reconstruction

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Purpose: A model-based reconstruction framework is proposed for motion-corrected and high-resolution anatomically assisted (MOCHA) reconstruction of arterial spin labeling (ASL) data. In this framework, all low-resolution ASL control-label pairs are used to reconstruct a single high-resolution cerebral blood flow (CBF) map, corrected for rigid-motion, point-spread-function blurring and partial volume effect. Methods: Six volunteers were recruited for CBF imaging using pseudo-continuous ASL labeling, two-shot 3D gradient and spin-echo sequences and high-resolution T 1-weighted MRI. For 2 volunteers, high-resolution scans with double and triple resolution in the partition direction were additionally collected. Simulations were designed for evaluations against a high-resolution ground-truth CBF map, including a simulated hyperperfused lesion and hyperperfusion/hypoperfusion abnormalities. The MOCHA technique was compared with standard reconstruction and a 3D linear regression partial-volume effect correction method and was further evaluated for acquisitions with reduced control-label pairs and k-space undersampling. Results: The MOCHA reconstructions of low-resolution ASL data showed enhanced image quality, particularly in the partition direction. In simulations, both MOCHA and 3D linear regression provided more accurate CBF maps than the standard reconstruction; however, MOCHA resulted in the lowest errors and well delineated the abnormalities. The MOCHA reconstruction of standard-resolution in vivo data showed good agreement with higher-resolution scans requiring 4-times and 9-times longer acquisitions. The MOCHA reconstruction was found to be robust for 4-times-accelerated ASL acquisitions, achieved by reduced control-label pairs or k-space undersampling. Conclusion: The MOCHA reconstruction reduces partial-volume effect by direct reconstruction of CBF maps in the high-resolution space of the corresponding anatomical image, incorporating motion correction and point spread function modeling. Following further evaluation, MOCHA should promote the clinical application of ASL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1306-1320
Number of pages15
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • anatomical priors
  • arterial spin labeling
  • partial-volume correction
  • perfusion MRI
  • reconstruction


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