Introduction and methods: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction may cause tissue oxidative stress and consequent catabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributing to patient mortality. We investigated in 5/6-nephrectomized (Nx) rats the impact of n3-polyunsaturated fatty-acids (n3-PUFA) isocaloric partial dietary replacement on gastrocnemius muscle (Gm) mitochondrial master-regulators, ATP production, ROS generation and related muscle-catabolic derangements. Results: Nx had low Gm mitochondrial nuclear respiratory factor-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, low ATP production and higher mitochondrial fission-fusion protein ratio with ROS overproduction. n3-PUFA normalized all mitochondrial derangements and pro-oxidative tissue redox state (oxydized to total glutathione ratio). n3-PUFA also normalized Nx-induced muscle-catabolic proinflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance and low muscle weight. Human uremic serum reproduced mitochondrial derangements in C2C12 myotubes, while n3-PUFA coincubation prevented all effects. n3-PUFA also enhanced muscle mitophagy in-vivo and siRNA-mediated autophagy inhibition selectively blocked n3-PUFA-induced normalization of C2C12 mitochondrial ROS production. Conclusions: In conclusion, dietary n3-PUFA normalize mitochondrial master-regulators, ATP production and dynamics in experimental CKD. These effects occur directly in muscle cells and they normalize ROS production through enhanced mitophagy. Dietary n3-PUFA mitochondrial effects result in normalized catabolic derangements and protection from muscle wasting, with potential positive impact on patient survival.
- Skeletal muscle