Summary The reactive oxygen species–generating enzyme NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is up-regulated in the heart after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice with cardiomyocyte-targeted Nox4 overexpression (TG) displayed increased macrophages in the heart at baseline, with skewing toward an M2 phenotype compared with wild-type controls (WT). After MI, TG mice had a higher proportion of M2 macrophages along with higher survival, decreased cardiac remodeling, and better contractile function than wild-type mice. The post-MI increase in cardiac matrix metalloproteinase–2 activity was substantially blunted in TG mice. These results indicate that cardiomyocyte Nox4 modulates macrophage polarization toward an M2 phenotype, resulting in improved post-MI survival and remodeling, likely through the attenuation of cardiac matrix metalloproteinase–2 activity.
- NADPH oxidase