Objectives: To evaluate whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) adds further neurodevelopmental risk to that posed by very preterm birth alone in terms of alterations in brain growth and poorer toddlerhood outcomes. Study design: Participants were 314 infants of very preterm birth enrolled in the Evaluation of Preterm Imaging Study (e-Prime) who were subsequently followed up in toddlerhood. IUGR was identified postnatally from discharge records (n = 49) and defined according to prenatal evaluation of growth restriction confirmed by birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age and/or alterations in fetal Doppler. Appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 265) was defined as birth weight >10th percentile for gestational age at delivery. Infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age (median = 42 weeks); T2-weighted images were obtained for voxelwise gray matter volumes. Follow-up assessments were conducted at corrected median age of 22 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III and the Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Results: Infants of very preterm birth with IUGR displayed a relative volumetric decrease in gray matter in limbic regions and a relative increase in frontoinsular, temporal-parietal, and frontal areas compared with peers of very preterm birth who were AGA. At follow-up, toddlers born very preterm with IUGR had significantly lower cognitive (effect size = 0.42) and motor (effect size = 0.41) scores and were more likely to have a positive Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers screening for autism (OR = 2.12) compared with peers of very preterm birth who were AGA. Conclusions: IUGR might confer a neurodevelopmental risk that is greater than that posed by very preterm alone, in terms of both alterations in brain growth and poorer toddlerhood outcomes.