Neuropsychiatric symptoms in limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy and Alzheimer's disease

Kathy Y. Liu*, Suzanne Reeves, Kirsty E. McAleese, Johannes Attems, Paul Francis, Alan Thomas, Robert Howard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


There is clinical overlap between presentations of dementia due to limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE) and Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that the combination of Alzheimer's disease neuropathological change (ADNC) and LATE neuropathological changes (LATE-NC) is associated with greater neuropsychiatric symptom burden, compared to either pathology alone. Longitudinal Neuropsychiatric Inventory and psychotropic medication prescription data from neuropathologically diagnosed pure ADNC (n = 78), pure LATE-NC (n = 14) and mixed ADNC/LATE-NC (n = 39) brain bank donors were analysed using analysis of variance and linear mixed effects regression models to examine the relationship between diagnostic group and neuropsychiatric symptom burden. Nearly all donors had dementia; three (two pure LATE-NC and one pure ADNC) donors had mild cognitive impairment and another two donors with LATE-NC did not have dementia. The mixed ADNC/LATE-NC group was older than the pure ADNC group, had a higher proportion of females compared to the pure ADNC and LATE-NC groups, and had more severe dementia versus the pure LATE-NC group. After adjustment for length of follow-up, cognitive and demographic factors, mixed ADNC/LATE-NC was associated with lower total Neuropsychiatric Inventory and agitation factor scores than pure ADNC, and lower frontal factor scores than pure LATE-NC. Our findings indicate that concomitant LATE pathology in Alzheimer's disease is not associated with greater neuropsychiatric symptom burden. Future longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate whether mixed ADNC/LATE-NC may be protective against agitation and frontal symptoms in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease or LATE pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3842-3849
Number of pages8
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • LATE
  • limbic
  • neuropsychiatric symptom
  • TDP-43


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