New and emerging treatments for schizophrenia: a narrative review of their pharmacology, efficacy and side effect profile relative to established antipsychotics

Maria C. Lobo*, Thomas S. Whitehurst, Stephen J. Kaar, Oliver D. Howes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Schizophrenia is associated with substantial unmet needs, highlighting the necessity for new treatments. This narrative review compares the pharmacology, clinical trial data and tolerability of novel medications to representative antipsychotics. Cariprazine, brexpiprazole and brilaroxazine are partial dopamine agonists effective in acute relapse. Lumateperone (serotonin and dopamine receptor antagonist) additionally benefits asocial and depressive symptoms. F17464 (D3 antagonist and 5-HT1A partial agonist) has one positive phase II study. Lu AF35700 (dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonist) was tested in treatment-resistance with no positive results. Pimavanserin, roluperidone, ulotaront and xanomeline do not act directly on the D2 receptor at clinical doses. Initial studies indicate pimavanserin and roluperidone improve negative symptoms. Ulotaront and xanomeline showed efficacy for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in phase II trials. BI 409306, BI 425809 and MK-8189 target glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia, though of these only BI 425809 showed efficacy. These medications largely have favourable cardiometabolic side-effect profiles. Overall, the novel pharmacology, clinical trial and tolerability data indicate these compounds are promising new additions to the therapeutic arsenal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)324-361
Number of pages38
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume132
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Antipsychotic
  • BI 425809
  • Brexpiprazole
  • Brilaroxazine
  • Cariprazine
  • F17464
  • Lumateperone
  • Pimavanserin
  • Roluperidone
  • Schizophrenia
  • Ulotaront
  • Xanomeline

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