Non-motor features of Parkinson disease

Anthony H.V. Schapira*, K. Ray Chaudhuri, Peter Jenner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

987 Citations (Scopus)


Many of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) can be preceded, sometimes for several years, by non-motor symptoms that include hyposmia, sleep disorders, depression and constipation. These non-motor features appear across the spectrum of patients with PD, including individuals with genetic causes of PD. The neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological bases of non-motor abnormalities in PD remain largely undefined. Here, we discuss recent advances that have helped to establish the presence, severity and effect on the quality of life of non-motor symptoms in PD, and the neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved. We also discuss the potential for the non-motor features to define a prodrome that may enable the early diagnosis of PD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)435-450
Number of pages16
Issue number7
Early online date8 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


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