Abstract

PURPOSE: Simultaneous PET-MRI improves inflammatory cardiac disease diagnosis. However, challenges persist in respiratory motion and mis-registration between free-breathing 3D PET and 2D breath-held MR images. We propose a free-breathing non-rigid motion-compensated 3D T 2 -mapping sequence enabling whole-heart myocardial tissue characterization in a hybrid 3T PET-MR system and provides non-rigid respiratory motion fields to correct also simultaneously acquired PET data.

METHODS: Free-breathing 3D whole-heart T 2 -mapping was implemented on a hybrid 3T PET-MRI system. Three datasets were acquired with different T 2 -preparation modules (0, 28, 55 ms) using 3-fold undersampled variable-density Cartesian trajectory. Respiratory motion was estimated via virtual 3D image navigators, enabling multi-contrast non-rigid motion-corrected MR reconstruction. T 2 -maps were computed using dictionary-matching. Approach was tested in phantom, 8 healthy subjects, 14 MR only and 2 PET-MR patients with suspected cardiac disease and compared with spin echo reference (phantom) and clinical 2D T 2 -mapping (in-vivo).

RESULTS: Phantom results show a high correlation (R 2  = 0.996) between proposed approach and gold standard 2D T 2 mapping. In-vivo 3D T 2 -mapping average values in healthy subjects (39.0 ± 1.4 ms) and patients (healthy tissue) (39.1 ± 1.4 ms) agree with conventional 2D T 2 -mapping (healthy = 38.6 ± 1.2 ms, patients = 40.3 ± 1.7 ms). Bland-Altman analysis reveals bias of 1.8 ms and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) of -2.4-6 ms for healthy subjects, and bias of 1.3 ms and 95% LOA of -1.9 to 4.6 ms for patients.

CONCLUSION: Validated efficient 3D whole-heart T 2 -mapping at hybrid 3T PET-MRI provides myocardial inflammation characterization and non-rigid respiratory motion fields for simultaneous PET data correction. Comparable T 2 values were achieved with both 3D and 2D methods. Improved image quality was observed in the PET images after MR-based motion correction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1951-1964
Number of pages14
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Volume91
Issue number5
Early online date5 Jan 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Jan 2024

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