Nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation for congenital immunodeficiencies

P Amrolia, H B Gaspar, A Hassan, D Webb, A Jones, N Sturt, G Mieli-Vergani, A Pagliuca, G Mufti, N Hadzic, G Davies, P Veys

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    139 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The optimal approach for stem cell transplantation in children with immunodeficiency has yet to be determined. Conditioning therapy is necessary for reliable engraftment and full immune reconstitution; however, the beneficial effect of cytoreductive conditioning is counterbalanced by increased short- and long-term treatment-related toxicity, Whether bone marrow transplantation with a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen was sufficient for the establishment of donor immune reconstitution, with the resultant correction of disease phenotype, was investigated, Eight patients with severe immunodeficiency states underwent T-cell replete bone marrow transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated (n = 6) or sibling (n = 2) donor with nonmyeloablative conditioning using a fludarabine-melphalan-anti-lymphocyte globulin-based regimen. All patients had severe organ dysfunction that precluded transplantation with conventional conditioning, All patients were engrafted with predominantly donor hematopoiesis, and the duration of neutropenia was brief, Significant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) did not develop, but one patient had limited chronic GVHD, One patient died of disease recurrence, and 3 have stable, mixed chimerism, At a median follow-up of 1 year, all patients have had good recovery of CD3(+) T-cell numbers, and 6 of 7 evaluable patients have normal phytohemagglutinin stimulation indices. The rate of immune reconstitution is comparable with that of historical controls undergoing standard myeloablative protocols, Two patients with CD40 ligand deficiency now show significant expression, and a patient with adenosine deaminase deficiency has improved deoxy adenosine triphosphate metabolites. In summary, it has been demonstrated that nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation permits rapid engraftment from both sibling and unrelated donors with minimal toxicity even in the presence of severe organ dysfunction. If long-term immune reconstitution of patients treated with this protocol is demonstrated, it is believed this approach might offer significant advantages compared with standard protocols by combining adequate immune reconstitution with reduced short- and long-term toxicity. (Blood, 2000;96: 1239-1246) (C) 2000 by The American Society of Hematology.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1239 - 1246
    Number of pages8
    JournalBlood
    Volume96
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2000

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