Advanced methods such as REACT have allowed the integration of fMRI with the brain's receptor landscape, providing novel insights transcending the multiscale organisation of the brain. Similarly, normative modelling has allowed translational neuroscience to move beyond group-average differences and characterise deviations from health at an individual level. Here, we bring these methods together for the first time. We used REACT to create functional networks enriched with the main modulatory, inhibitory, and excitatory neurotransmitter systems and generated normative models of these networks to capture functional connectivity deviations in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BPD), and ADHD. Substantial overlap was seen in symptomatology and deviations from normality across groups, but these could be mapped into a common space linking constellations of symptoms through to underlying neurobiology transdiagnostically. This work provides impetus for developing novel biomarkers that characterise molecular- and systems-level dysfunction at the individual level, facilitating the transition towards mechanistically targeted treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number689
Pages (from-to)689
JournalCommunications Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jun 2024


  • Humans
  • Schizophrenia/physiopathology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Adult
  • Male
  • Brain/physiopathology
  • Female
  • Bipolar Disorder/physiopathology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology
  • Mental Disorders/physiopathology
  • Young Adult
  • Models, Neurological
  • Middle Aged
  • Nerve Net/physiopathology


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