Nuclear Security for Newcomer Countries

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The chapter examines how states develop nuclear security systems as they navigate the lengthy journey of building a new civilian nuclear sector. It outlines the steps set out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which states must follow sequentially to establish a civilian nuclear industry. In so doing, the chapter focuses on the hurdles states have needed to overcome to establish national regulatory and legal frameworks and implement physical protection systems for the first time, and also highlights where opportunities have arisen. Accordingly, the chapter considers the gap between the ideal and the reality, comparing the standards set by the IAEA with what individual states have been able to accomplish. In order to highlight differences in national approaches, the chapter utilizes two case studies: Turkey and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). At the time of writing, Turkey is in the final stages of operationalizing its first nuclear power plant (NPP), while the UAE’s first reactor went online in 2020. The development of the nuclear industry in each country is explored in order to understand how nuclear security systems might diverge. While implementation inevitably differs between states, nuclear security is an intrinsic and non-delineable aspect of the broader nuclear sector. In this process, what might be considered ‘norms’ of the global nuclear security regime are established, although perceptions about security might also evolve.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Nuclear Security
EditorsChristopher Hobbs, Sarah Tzinieris, Sukesh Aghara
PublisherOxford Univerity Press; Oxford
Publication statusPublished - 22 May 2023


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