Nutrition Assessment in Crohn's Disease using Anthropometric, Biochemical, and Dietary Indexes: A Narrative Review

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17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Malnutrition is common in patients with Crohn's disease and negatively influences immunity and quality of life. The optimal tools for nutrition assessment in patients with Crohn's disease are not clearly defined and lead to variations in practice. With this review, we aimed to appraise the existing evidence for nutrition assessment of patients with Crohn's disease compared with healthy controls and provide a comprehensive guide with relevant measures applicable to clinical practice. A literature search using Medline, Embase, and Scopus from inception to October 1, 2018, was conducted. Forty-one articles that assessed body composition, muscle strength, micronutrient status and/or dietary intake in adults with Crohn's disease compared with an age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included. There were heterogeneous findings on nutritional status in patients with Crohn's disease compared with healthy controls. Only one article reported a clinically significant difference for body mass index; however, significant deficits in fat mass, fat-free mass, and muscle strength were observed in patients with Crohn's disease compared with healthy controls, with more pronounced differences with increasing disease activity and length of diagnosis. Most research reported significantly lower serum micronutrients in patients with Crohn's disease compared with healthy controls. Half of studies measuring micronutrient intake reported lower intakes in patients with Crohn's disease compared with healthy controls. Fruit and vegetable intake was also lower in patients with Crohn's disease. Difficulties characterizing the type and prevalence of malnutrition exist due to the heterogeneous nature of Crohn's disease and warrants continued investigation. As a result of this review, we advocate that a nutrition assessment should include more parameters than weight and body mass index.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the academy of nutrition and dietetics
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 Jun 2019

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • Crohn's disease
  • Dietary intake
  • Micronutrients
  • Nutrition

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