Operando Measurement of Layer Breathing Modes in Lithiated Graphite

Hossein Yadegari, Mohamed A. Koronfel, Kang Wang, Daisy B. Thornton, Ifan E.L. Stephens, Carla Molteni, Peter D. Haynes, Mary P. Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Despite their ubiquitous usage and increasing societal dependence on Li-ion batteries, there remains a lack of detailed empirical evidence of Li intercalation/deintercalation into graphite even though this process dictates the performance, longevity, and safety of the system. Here, we report direct detection and dissociation of specific crystallographic phases in the lithiated graphite, which form through a stepwise staging process. Using operando measurements, LiC18, LiC12, and LiC6 phases are observed via distinct low-frequency Raman features, which are the result of displacement of the graphite lattice by induced local strain. Density functional theory calculations confirm the nature of the Raman-active vibrational modes, to the layer breathing modes (LBMs) of the lithiated graphite. The new findings indicate graphene-like characteristics in the lithiated graphite under the deep charged condition due to the imposed strain by the inserted Li. Moreover, our approach also provides a simple experimental tool to measure induced strain in the graphite structure under full intercalation conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1633–1638
Number of pages6
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2021


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