Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders refer to persistent antisocial and aggressive behavior that is outside socially acceptable norms. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in understanding different subtypes and their trajectories over the lifespan. The early onset persistent group do particularly poorly and are characterised by both increased biological risk factors such as attention and impulsivity problems, and poor social environments notably characterised by harsh parenting; those with marked callous-unemotional traits do especially poorly. Against this rather sombre picture, scores of trials attest the effectiveness of parenting programs in producing both short and longer term benefits in a substantial majority of cases, and recent forms of cognitive behavior therapy are showing good effectiveness.
- Antisocial behaviour
- Conduct disorder
- Oppositional defiant disorder
- Parent training