Oral Warty Dyskeratoma—A Systematic Review of the Literature

A. Thirumal Raj, Kamran Habib Awan*, Shankargouda Patil, Peter Morgan, Saman Warnakulasuriya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: To systematically review the clinicopathological features of oral warty keratoma based on published literature. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for reports of oral warty dyskeratoma. Of the 52 identified articles, only 25 articles (43 cases) satisfied the selection criteria (case report/series in the English language reporting clinicopathologically diagnosed oral warty dyskeratoma/oral focal acantholytic keratosis/oral isolated dyskeratosis follicularis in humans). Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs institute critical appraisal checklist for case reports and case series. Results: Most cases had well-circumscribed, white, nodular verrucopapillary lesions with a central depressed/crater-like area. Alveolar ridges were the most frequent sites of occurrence and tobacco was the most commonly associated risk factor. Histopathologically, the most pathognomonic feature was the supra-basal clefting. The cleft had dyskeratotic acantholytic cells (corps ronds, and grains). Below the cleft were projections of the connective tissue villi lined by basal cells. The basal cells in a few cases exhibited hyperplasia in the form of budding into the stroma, but epithelial dysplasia was not reported. The surface epithelium had crypts filled with keratin debris. Conclusion: Oral warty dyskeratoma is a rare solitary self-limiting benign entity, which due to its clinical and histopathological resemblance and associated habit history could be misdiagnosed as leukoplakia or carcinoma. None of the assessed articles provided molecular data, which in turn could be the reason for the lack of insight into the etiopathogenesis of this enigmatic lesion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1273
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • focal acantholytic dyskeratosis
  • oral isolated dyskeratosis follicularis
  • oral keratosis
  • oral warty dyskeratoma
  • systematic review


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