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Organ Pretreatment with Cytotopic Endothelial Localizing Peptides to Ameliorate Microvascular Thrombosis and Perfusion Deficits in Ex Vivo Renal Hemoreperfusion Models

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Karim Hamaoui, Sally Gowers, Martyn Boutelle, Terry H. Cook, George Hanna, Ara Darzi, Richard Smith, Anthony Dorling, Vassilios Papalois

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e128-e139
JournalTransplantation
Volume100
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

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Abstract

Background Hypothermic machine organ perfusion (HMP) offers opportunity to manipulate grafts with pharmacological agents prior to transplantation. Pretreating organs with novel cytotopic anticoagulant peptides that localize to endothelial cell membranes could ameliorate microvascular thrombotic sequelae posttransplantation. We describe experiments testing thrombalexin (TLN), a novel cell binding thrombin inhibitor, using porcine and unused human kidneys in a series of ex vivo normothermic hemoreperfusion models. Methods Thirty-eight porcine kidneys were used. Control kidneys underwent pretreatment via HMP with either unmodified perfusion solution (n = 15) or solution with inactive-TLN (absent anticoagulant effect, n = 4). Test kidneys were perfused with TLN-treated solution (n = 19). All kidneys then underwent hemoreperfusion. Two unused human kidneys underwent a similar protocol. Results Hypothermic machine perfusion pretreatment facilitated delivery and tethering of TLN in the organ microvasculature. Hemoreperfusion challenge demonstrated improved perfusion in TLN-treated kidneys compared with controls: 26.4% superior flow (30.6 vs. 23.1 mL/min per 100 g, P = 0.019) and 28.9% higher perfusion flow indices (0.43 vs. 0.32 mL/min per 100 g mm Hg, P = 0.049). Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging demonstrated superior microvascular capillary perfusion in TLN-treated organs versus controls (9.1 vs 2.8 pl/s per mm2, P = 0.021). Rapid-sampling microdialysis for cortical [lactate] as a marker of tissue ischemia/metabolism detected lower levels in TLN-treated kidneys. Perfusate analysis demonstrated reduced fibrin generation in TLN-treated kidneys correlating with perfusion data. Conclusions Our data suggest that HMP graft pretreatment with cytotopic anticoagulants is feasible and ameliorates perfusion deficits seen in ex vivo hemoreperfusion models. There is potential for further development and application of this translational strategy to deliver locally active anticoagulants directly within grafts and decrease microvascular thrombotic sequelae, while avoiding systemic anticoagulation and its associated risks.

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