Orthostatic hypertension and major adverse events: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Zahra Pasdar, Lorenzo De Paola, Ben Carter, Tiberiu A. Pana, John F. Potter, Phyo K. Myint*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)



The role of orthostatic hypertension (OHT) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality is unclear. We aimed to determine if this association exists through a systematic review and meta-analysis. 

Methods and results: 

Study inclusion criteria included: (i) any observational/interventional studies of participants aged ≥18 years (ii) that assessed the relationship between OHT and (iii) at least one outcome measure - all-cause mortality (primary outcome), coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke/cerebrovascular disease, or neurocognitive decline. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, and PubMed were independently searched by two reviewers (inception - 19 April 2022). Critical appraisals were conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed using a generic inverse variance method, and narrative synthesis or pooled results were presented as an odds or hazards ratio (OR/HR), with 95% confidence interval. Twenty studies (n = 61 669; 47.3% women) were eligible, of which 13 were included in the meta-analysis (n = 55 456; 47.3% women). Median interquartile range (IQR) follow-up for prospective studies was 7.85 (4.12, 10.83) years. Eleven studies were of good quality, eight fair, and one poor. Relative to orthostatic normotension (ONT), systolic OHT (SOHT) was associated with a significant 21% greater risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.21, 1.05-1.40), 39% increased risk of CVD mortality based on two studies (HR: 1.39, 1.05-1.84), and near doubled odds of stroke/cerebrovascular disease (OR: 1.94, 1.52-2.48). The lack of association with other outcomes may be due to weak evidence or low statistical power.


Patients with SOHT may have higher mortality risk relative to those with ONT and increased odds of stroke/cerebrovascular disease. Whether interventions can reduce OHT and improve outcomes should be explored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1028-1038
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean journal of preventive cardiology
Issue number10
Early online date18 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jun 2023


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Meta-analysis
  • Mortality
  • Orthostatic hypertension
  • Systematic review


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