Outcome of Donor Lymphocyte Infusion after T Cell-depleted Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

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Abstract

Relapse occurs in 30%-50% of recipients of T cell-depleted (TCD) reduced-intensity conditioned (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Despite limited published supportive data, donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is used preemptively (pDLI) to improve donor chimerism and prevent relapse, and therapeutically (tDLI) after disease recurrence. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of pDLI and tDLI in 113 patients after TCD (alemtuzumab, n = 99; antithymocyte globulin, n = 14) RIC HSCT for AML or MDS. Recipients of pDLI (n = 62) had an estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) of 80% and an event-free survival of 65%. More than one-half (52%; n = 32) of the patients received pDLI within 6 months post-HSCT; despite this, the 5-year incidence of graft-versus-host disease was only 31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19%-43%). Recipients of tDLI (n = 51) had an estimated 5-year OS of 40% and a 5-year relapse/progression rate of 69% (95% CI, 54%-81%). Recipients of tDLI at >6 months post-HSCT had a significantly superior 5-year OS after tDLI compared with those treated earlier (P = .008). The cumulative incidence of graft-versus-host disease at 5 years after tDLI was 45% (95% CI, 23%-65%). We demonstrate that pDLI safely promotes durable remission after TCD RIC HSCT for AML or MDS, and that tDLI salvages patients after late relapse with greater efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-568
Number of pages7
JournalBIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION
Volume19
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Antilymphocyte Serum
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Female
  • Graft vs Host Disease
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
  • Lymphocyte Depletion
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Recurrence
  • Survival Analysis
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Transplantation Conditioning
  • Transplantation, Homologous
  • Treatment Outcome

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