Pancreatic cancer exposome profile to aid early detection and inform prevention strategies

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Pancreatic cancer (PCa) is associated with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. The causes of PCa are not fully elucidated yet, although certain exposome factors have been identified. The exposome is defined as the sum of all environmental factors influencing the occurrence of a disease during a life span. The development of an exposome approach for PCa has the potential to discover new disease-associated factors to better understand the carcinogenesis of PCa and help with early detection strategies. Our systematic review of the literature identified several exposome factors that have been associated with PCa alone and in combination with other exposures. A potential inflammatory signature has been observed among the interaction of several exposures (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and inflammatory markers) that further increases the incidence and progression of PCa. A large number of exposures have been identified such as genetic, hormonal, microorganism infections and immune responses that warrant further investigation. Future early detection strategies should utilize this information to assess individuals’ risk for PCa.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1665
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number8
Early online date13 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Cancer risk factors
  • Early detection
  • Exposome
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Systematic review


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