Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurological disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative condition. Advanced PD is complicated by erratic gastric absorption, delayed gastric emptying in turn causing medication overload, and hence the emergence of motor and non-motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, which is initially predictable and then becomes unpredictable. As the patient progresses to the advanced stage, advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD) is characterized by refractory motor and non motor fluctuations, unpredictable OFF periods, and troublesome dyskinesias The management of APD is a complex affair. There is growing recognition that GI dysfunction is common in PD, with virtually the entire GI system (the upper and lower GI tracts) causing problems from dribbling to defecation. The management of PD should focus on personalized care addressing both motor and non-motor symptoms, ideally including not only dopamine replacement but also associated non-dopaminergic circuits, particularly focusing on noradrenergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic therapies bypassing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by infusion or device-aided therapies (DAT), including levodopa– carbidopa intestinal gel infusion, apomorphine subcutaneous infusion, and deep brain stimulation, which are available in many countries for the management of the advanced stage of Parkinson’s disease (APD). The PKG (KinetiGrap) can be used as a continuous objective monitoring (COM) aid, as a screening tool to help to identify advanced PD (APD) patients suitable for DAT, and can thus improve clinical outcomes.
- Advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD)
- Apomorphine subcutaneous infusion therapy
- Motor and non-motor symptoms
- PKG (KinetiGrap)
- Precision medicine