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Participation beyond the State: Why Some environmental NGOs partner with business, and others do not

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLong-Term Governance for Social-Ecological Change
EditorsBernd Siebenhuner, Marlen Arnold, Klaus Eisenack, Klaus Jacob
Place of PublicationMilton Park, Abingdon, Oxon
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9780203556160
ISBN (Print)9780415633529

Publication series

NameRoutledge Research in Environmental Politics

King's Authors


In the last two decades, participation has become a key concept in environmental governance. Participation – at its simplest – means the involvement of agents, such as citizens and non-state actors, in collective decision-making processes. The relevance of this key concept is underlined by prominent policy initiatives such as UNCED’s Agenda 21, with its recognition of eight major stakeholder groups in environmental governance and the UNECE’s Aarhus Convention, strengthening public participation in decision making. While these two initiatives are the outcome of inter-governmental processes and invite non-state actors to contribute to the environmental policies of state actors, participation in environmental governance also occurs beyond the state. This chapter investigates one particular aspect of this environmental governance beyond the state, namely ‘green partnerships’ between nongovernmental and corporate organisations.

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