Objective Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. 
Method We used multilevel growth modelling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using ACE (Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment) and gene–environment (GxE) models. 
Results In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p=.01; slope: p=.03). No other behavioural domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. 
Conclusion Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-390
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number5
Early online date6 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • advanced paternal age
  • social development
  • autism
  • schizophrenia
  • neurodevelopment


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