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Pathways of participation in paid and unpaid work in mid to later life in the United Kingdom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
JournalAgeing and Society
Published4 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: This work was supported by the British cross-research council Lifelong Health and Wellbeing (LLHW) programme under Extending Working Lives as part of an inter-disciplinary consortium on Wellbeing, Health, Retirement and the Lifecourse (WHERL) (grant number ES/L002825/1); and the Kamprad Family Foundation (LBS, grant number 20180313). Publisher Copyright: © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press.

King's Authors


Policy responses to population ageing have focused on lengthening working lives, overlooking inequalities in older adults’ participation in unpaid activities. This paper examines participation in paid and unpaid activities between the ages of 55 and 70 to answer two questions: how do people navigate pathways of paid work, informal care, volunteering, civic participation and housework in mid to later life?; and how do these pathways relate to gender, socio-economic and health inequalities? Two-staged latent class analysis was used to identify activity pathways using data from the British Household Panel Survey (1996–2008). Multinomial logistic models assessed associations between latent pathways and socio-demographic and health characteristics. Three pathways were observed: full-time work to low activity (49%), part-time and in-home work (34%) and multiple activities (16%). Aside from retirement from full-time work, the pathways of participation in paid and unpaid activities were characterised by continuity; substitution between different forms of paid and unpaid work was not observed. Participation in multiple paid and unpaid activities was more common for respondents in better health and of higher socio-economic status. Since the promotion of paid work and volunteering in later life may mainly benefit individuals in advantaged circumstances, policies should avoid taking a blanket approach to encouraging participation in multiple activities, a key component of active ageing.

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