Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scoring of cleft patients treated within a regional cleft centre in the United Kingdom

Claire Furness, Helen Veeroo*, Giles Kidner, Martyn T. Cobourne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: To assess static occlusal outcomes for patients with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and cleft palate (CP) managed within a UK Regional Cleft Service and to compare with previously published Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores from a non-cleft population of patients treated within a UK consultant-led hospital service. Design: Retrospective multicentre study. Setting: Eight orthodontic hospital units within the Spires Cleft Service, UK. Participants: Patients born with CLP or CP between 1985 and 1995 treated within the service. Methods: Patients were assigned to groups by cleft type and whether they were treated by orthodontics only or a combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. PAR was recorded before and after treatment from study models. Results: Data were collected for 171 patients included in the study. Median pre-treatment PAR was 42 and post-treatment 11. Median percentage change in PAR for all patients was 73%, although 12% of cleft patients had a PAR improvement that was worse or no different. Median change in PAR score was 71% for those treated with orthodontics only and 83% for those who had an osteotomy. Median PAR improvement for those treated with orthodontics only was 73% in the cleft lip group, 77% in the CP group, 66% in the unilateral CLP group and 53% in the bilateral CLP group. Median pre- and post-treatment PAR for the cleft group was higher and PAR reduction lower than those published for non-cleft patients. Conclusion: These data demonstrate high severity of malocclusion, complexity of orthodontic treatment and difficulty in achieving an ideal static occlusion for cleft patients. If PAR is to be used to assess orthodontic outcomes in cleft patients the findings of this study should be considered. A higher proportion of cases are likely to be classed as ‘worse or no different’, and a lower percentage change will be expected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-23
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of orthodontics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • cleft lip and palate
  • CLP/CP
  • Peer Assessment Rating (PAR)
  • treatment outcome


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