Phase-shift nanodroplets as an emerging sonoresponsive nanomaterial for imaging and drug delivery applications

Weiqi Zhang, Yuhong Shi, Shazwan Abd Shukor, Aaran Vijayakumaran, Stavros Vlatakis, Michael Wright, Maya Thanou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
71 Downloads (Pure)


Nanodroplets - emerging phase-changing sonoresponsive materials - have attracted substantial attention in biomedical applications for both tumour imaging and therapeutic purposes due to their unique response to ultrasound. As ultrasound is applied at different frequencies and powers, nanodroplets have been shown to cavitate by the process of acoustic droplet vapourisation (ADV), causing the development of mechanical forces which promote sonoporation through cellular membranes. This allows drugs to be delivered efficiently into deeper tissues where tumours are located. Recent reviews on nanodroplets are mostly focused on the mechanism of cavitation and their applications in biomedical fields. However, the chemistry of the nanodroplet components has not been discussed or reviewed yet. In this review, the commonly used materials and preparation methods of nanodroplets are summarised. More importantly, this review provides examples of variable chemistry components in nanodroplets which link them to their efficiency as ultrasound-multimodal imaging agents to image and monitor drug delivery. Finally, the drawbacks of current research, future development, and future direction of nanodroplets are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2943-2965
Number of pages23
Issue number8
Early online date15 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2022


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