Levodopa has been effective against the motor features of Parkinson's disease for several decades. However, it is observed that long-term treatment with levodopa can be complicated by the development of various types of response fluctuations as well as dyskinesias. The latter, once established, tend to remain persistent although they can be reduced by some pharmacological and neurosurgical manipulations. These situations can lead to a significant source of disability, and their treatment options require significant expertise and costs. Therefore, efforts are made to minimize or prevent the appearance of long-term dyskinesia and fluctuations. In this chapter, we will consider the phenotypes of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.
|Title of host publication
|Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease
|Susan H Fox, Jonathan M Brotchie
|Place of Publication
|Number of pages
|Published - 23 Aug 2014
- Levodopa-induced dyskinesia