Levodopa has been effective against the motor features of Parkinson's disease for several decades. However, it is observed that long-term treatment with levodopa can be complicated by the development of various types of response fluctuations as well as dyskinesias. The latter, once established, tend to remain persistent although they can be reduced by some pharmacological and neurosurgical manipulations. These situations can lead to a significant source of disability, and their treatment options require significant expertise and costs. Therefore, efforts are made to minimize or prevent the appearance of long-term dyskinesia and fluctuations. In this chapter, we will consider the phenotypes of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLevodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease
EditorsSusan H Fox, Jonathan M Brotchie
Place of PublicationLondon
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781447165033
ISBN (Print)9781447165026
Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2014


  • Dyskinesia
  • Levodopa
  • Levodopa-induced dyskinesia
  • On-off
  • Phenomenology


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