Phenotypic Dissection of Bone Mineral Density Reveals Skeletal Site Specificity and Facilitates the Identification of Novel Loci in the Genetic Regulation of Bone Mass Attainment

John P. Kemp*, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Karol Estrada, Beate St Pourcain, Denise H. M. Heppe, Nicole M. Warrington, Ling Oei, Susan M. Ring, Claudia J. Kruithof, Nicholas J. Timpson, Lisa E. Wolber, Sjur Reppe, Kaare Gautvik, Elin Grundberg, Bing Ge, Bram van der Eerden, Jeroen van de Peppel, Matthew A. Hibbs, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Kwangbom ChoiDaniel L. Koller, Michael J. Econs, Frances M. K. Williams, Tatiana Foroud, M. Carola Zillikens, Claes Ohlsson, Albert Hofman, Andre G. Uitterlinden, George Davey Smith, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Jonathan H. Tobias, Fernando Rivadeneira, David M. Evans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

117 Citations (Scopus)


Heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) varies across skeletal sites, reflecting different relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. To quantify the degree to which common genetic variants tag and environmental factors influence BMD, at different sites, we estimated the genetic (r(g)) and residual (r(e)) correlations between BMD measured at the upper limbs (UL-BMD), lower limbs (LL-BMD) and skull (SK-BMD), using total-body DXA scans of,4,890 participants recruited by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (ALSPAC). Point estimates of r(g) indicated that appendicular sites have a greater proportion of shared genetic architecture (LL-/UL-BMD r(g) = 0.78) between them, than with the skull (UL-/SK-BMD r(g) = 0.58 and LL-/SK-BMD r(g) = 0.43). Likewise, the residual correlation between BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.55) was higher than the residual correlation between SK-BMD and BMD at appendicular sites (r(e) = 0.20-0.24). To explore the basis for the observed differences in r(g) and r(e), genome-wide association meta-analyses were performed (n similar to 9,395), combining data from ALSPAC and the Generation R Study identifying 15 independent signals from 13 loci associated at genome-wide significant level across different skeletal regions. Results suggested that previously identified BMD-associated variants may exert site-specific effects (i.e. differ in the strength of their association and magnitude of effect across different skeletal sites). In particular, variants at CPED1 exerted a larger influence on SK-BMD and UL-BMD when compared to LL-BMD (P = 2.01x10(-37)), whilst variants at WNT16 influenced UL-BMD to a greater degree when compared to SK- and LL-BMD (P = 2.31x10(-14)). In addition, we report a novel association between RIN3 (previously associated with Paget's disease) and LL-BMD (rs754388: beta = 0.13, SE = 0.02, P = 1.4x10(-10)). Our results suggest that BMD at different skeletal sites is under a mixture of shared and specific genetic and environmental influences. Allowing for these differences by performing genome-wide association at different skeletal sites may help uncover new genetic influences on BMD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1004423
Number of pages18
JournalPL o S Genetics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2014


  • SNPS
  • TOOL
  • MAP


Dive into the research topics of 'Phenotypic Dissection of Bone Mineral Density Reveals Skeletal Site Specificity and Facilitates the Identification of Novel Loci in the Genetic Regulation of Bone Mass Attainment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this