The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities for the application of laser therapy in medicine and dentistry by analyzing lasers' underlying mechanism of action on different cells, with a special focus on stem cells and mechanisms of repair. The interest in the application of laser therapy in medicine and dentistry has remarkably increased in the last decade. There are different types of lasers available and their usage is well defined by different parameters, such as: wavelength, energy density, power output, and duration of radiation. Laser irradiation can induce a photobiomodulatory (PBM) effect on cells and tissues, contributing to a directed modulation of cell behaviors, enhancing the processes of tissue repair. Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), can induce cell proliferation and enhance stem cell differentiation. Laser therapy is a non-invasive method that contributes to pain relief and reduces inflammation, parallel to the enhanced healing and tissue repair processes. The application of these properties was employed and observed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions, such as diabetes, brain injury, spinal cord damage, dermatological conditions, oral irritation, and in different areas of dentistry.