Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders

Daniel J Weiner, Emilie M Wigdor, Stephan Ripke, Raymond K Walters, Jack A Kosmicki, Jakob Grove, Kaitlin E Samocha, Jacqueline I Goldstein, Aysu Okbay, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Thomas Werge, David M Hougaard, Jacob Taylor, David Skuse, Bernie Devlin, Richard Anney, Stephan J Sanders, Somer Bishop, Preben Bo Mortensen, Anders D BørglumGeorge Davey Smith, Mark J Daly, Elise B Robinson, iPSYCH-Broad Autism Group, Patrick F. Bolton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

299 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a novel approach called the polygenic transmission disequilibrium test and data from 6,454 families with a child with ASD, we show that polygenic risk for ASD, schizophrenia, and greater educational attainment is over-transmitted to children with ASD. These findings hold independent of proband IQ. We find that polygenic variation contributes additively to risk in ASD cases who carry a strongly acting de novo variant. Lastly, we show that elements of polygenic risk are independent and differ in their relationship with phenotype. These results confirm that the genetic influences on ASD are additive and suggest that they create risk through at least partially distinct etiologic pathways.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Genetics
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2017

Keywords

  • Journal Article

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