Polymerisation, antibacterial and bioactivity properties of experimental orthodontic adhesives containing triclosan-loaded halloysite nanotubes

Felipe Weidenbach Degrazia, Bruna Genari, Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune, Rodrigo Alex Arthur, Santiago Arias Luxan, Susana Maria Werner Samuel, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares, Salvatore Sauro

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Objective: To evaluate the immediate enamel bond strength, in situ degree of conversion and the polymerisation rate of three experimental orthodontic adhesives containing triclosan-loaded halloysite nanotubes. The antibacterial and bioactivity properties of such experimental materials were also assessed. Materials and methods Three experimental orthodontic adhesives were formulated by incorporating triclosan-loaded halloysite nanotubes (TCN-HNT) at different concentrations (5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) into resin blend (Control). The maximum polymerisation rate of the tested adhesives was evaluated trough FTIR, while Raman was used to analyse the in situ degree of conversion (DC) at the bracket/enamel interface. The shear bond strength (SBS) of the enamel-bonded specimens was assessed at 24 h. The antibacterial properties of the experimental materials against S. Mutans were evaluate up to 72 h, while, their bioactivity was evaluated after 14 days of artificial saliva (AS) storage through SEM-EDS and Raman spectromicroscopy. Results Incorporation of TCN-HNT increased the polymerisation properties without interfering with the immediate bonding properties of the experimental adhesives. All experimental adhesives containing TCN-HNT inhibited bacterial growth at 24 h, and induced mineral deposition after 14 days of AS storage. At 72 h, only the experimental system containing 20% TCN-HNT maintained such a capability. Conclusions Adhesives doped with TCN-HNT present improved polymerisation properties and suitable bonding performance. However, adhesives containing TCN-HNT >10% might promote long-term antibacterial activity and reliable mineral deposition. Significances The use of adhesives containing triclosan-loaded halloysite represent a promising “smart” approach to bond orthodontic brackets and bands; these might prevent enamel demineralisation and induce enamel remineralisation during the treatment.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of dentistry
Early online date7 Nov 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Nov 2017


  • Adhesives
  • Antibacterial
  • Bioactivity
  • Nanotubes
  • Orthodontics
  • Triclosan

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