OBJECTIVES: Despite successful treatment, people living with HIV experience persisting and burdensome multidimensional problems. We aimed to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of Positive Outcomes, a patient-reported outcome measure for use in clinical practice. METHODS: In all, 1392 outpatients in five European countries self-completed Positive Outcomes, PAM-13 (patient empowerment), PROQOL-HIV (quality of life) and FRAIL (frailty) at baseline and 12 months. Analysis assessed: (a) validity (structural, convergent and divergent, discriminant); (b) reliability (internal consistency, test-retest); and (c) responsiveness. RESULTS: An interpretable four-factor structure was identified: 'emotional wellbeing', 'interpersonal and sexual wellbeing', 'socioeconomic wellbeing' and 'physical wellbeing'. Moderate to strong convergent validity was found for three subscales of Positive Outcomes and PROQOL (ρ = -0.481 to -0.618, all p < 0.001). Divergent validity was found for total scores with weak ρ (-0.295, p < 0.001). Discriminant validity was confirmed with worse Positive Outcomes score associated with increasing odds of worse FRAIL group (4.81-fold, p < 0.001) and PAM-13 level (2.28-fold, p < 0.001). Internal consistency for total Positive Outcomes and its factors exceeded the conservative α threshold of 0.6. Test-retest reliability was established: those with stable PAM-13 and FRAIL scores also reported median Positive Outcomes change of 0. Improved PROQOL-HIV score baseline to 12 months was associated with improved Positive Outcomes score (r = -0.44, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Positive Outcomes face and content validity was previously established, and the remaining validity, reliability and responsiveness properties are now demonstrated. The items within the brief 22-item tool are designed to be actionable by health and social care professionals to facilitate the goal of person-centred care.
- ORIGINAL RESEARCH