We aimed to review the challenges and opportunities that radiology may face once the UK leaves the European Union (EU). Even before the exit negotiations commence, uncertainty over future policies and funding within the UK may influence the National Health Service (NHS). We discuss the potential impact that financial, regulatory and social changes may have on healthcare, and radiology in particular. Current difficulties in recruitment and retention of radiologists and the challenges that Brexit present are considered. Uncertainty over the new immigration regulations and their impact on the NHS workforce is addressed. Challenges also apply to UK research, which has greatly benefited from EU funding and the free movement of staff. Appreciating the problems as well as the opportunities that Brexit presents will help prepare radiology in the UK for the next decade.