Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to improve prenatal detection of congenital heart disease. We analysed the performance of the current national screening programme in detecting hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) to compare with our own AI model. Methods: Current screening programme performance was calculated from local and national sources. AI models were trained using four-chamber ultrasound views of the fetal heart, using a ResNet classifier. Results: Estimated current fetal screening programme sensitivity and specificity for HLHS were 94.3% and 99.985%, respectively. Depending on calibration, AI models to detect HLHS were either highly sensitive (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94.0%) or highly specific (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 100%). Our analysis suggests that our highly sensitive model would generate 45,134 screen positive results for a gain of 14 additional HLHS cases. Our highly specific model would be associated with two fewer detected HLHS cases, and 118 fewer false positives. Conclusion: If used independently, our AI model performance is slightly worse than the performance level of the current screening programme in detecting HLHS, and this performance is likely to deteriorate further when used prospectively. This demonstrates that collaboration between humans and AI will be key for effective future clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPrenatal Diagnosis
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


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