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Prevalence and implications of Truman symptoms in subjects at ultra high risk for psychosis

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Luis Madeira, Ilaria Bonoldi, Matteo Rocchetti, Martina Brandizzi, Carly Samson, Matilda Azis, Beverly Queen, Matthijs Bossong, Paul Allen, Jesus Perez, Oliver D Howes, Philip McGuire, Paolo Fusar-Poli

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)270-276
Number of pages7
JournalPsychiatry Research
Accepted/In press1 Feb 2016
Published30 Apr 2016


King's Authors


Preliminary qualitative research has suggested that patients with early stages of psychosis and those at Ultra High Risk (UHR) may experience "Truman symptoms" (TS). This study is an exploratory investigation of TS in a sample of 26 UHR subjects and 14 matched controls (HC) recruited from three prodromal and early intervention clinics and its relation with clinical features, depersonalization and basic self-disturbances. The UHR were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS) and the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences (EASE) checklist. In our sample, TS were specific (TS absent in HC) and highly prevalent (50%) in UHR subjects. We found a significant difference in EASE total scores across HC, UHR with TS and without TS but post-hoc analyses showed similar scores in the two latter groups. The presence of TS in our UHR sample was associated with significant higher PANSS general psychopathology but with non-significant difference in the CAARMS, CDS and SOFAS scores. This study of TS in UHR subjects suggested that they might be prevalent and specific of this population.

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